Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2022-2
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2022-2
 
21 Jan 2022
21 Jan 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal ANGEO and is expected to appear here in due course.

Fine structure and motion of the bow shock, and particle energisation mechanisms inferred from MMS observations

Krzysztof Stasiewicz and Zbigniew Kłos Krzysztof Stasiewicz and Zbigniew Kłos
  • Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland

Abstract. This study presents new observations of fine structure and motion of the bow shock formed in the solar wind, upstream of the Earth's magnetosphere. The NASA's MMS mission has recorded during 2 hours eleven encounters with an oscillatory shock, which moves with the speed of 4–17 km/s and has thickness of 130 km, or an ion gyroradius. The shock is formed by steepening of 1 mHz magnetosonic wave, creating compressional magnetic field and plasma density structures, which initiate a chain of cross-field current-driven instabilities that heat solar wind ions by the stochastic ExB wave energisation mechanism. The theoretical ion energisation limits are confirmed by observations. We have identified the ion acceleration mechanism operating at shocks and explained double beam structures in the velocity space. The nature of this mechanism has been revealed as a stochastic resonant acceleration (SRA). The results provide for the first time a consistent picture of a chain of plasma processes that generate collisionless shocks and are responsible for particles energisation.

Krzysztof Stasiewicz and Zbigniew Kłos

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Anonymous Referee #1, 20 Feb 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC1', Krzysztof Stasiewicz, 03 Mar 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Anonymous Referee #2, 28 Feb 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC2', Krzysztof Stasiewicz, 03 Mar 2022
      • AC3: 'Reply on AC1', Krzysztof Stasiewicz, 06 Mar 2022
  • AC4: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Krzysztof Stasiewicz, 16 Mar 2022
  • EC1: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Nick Sergis, 16 Mar 2022
  • CC1: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Wieslaw M. Macek, 22 Mar 2022
    • AC5: 'Reply on CC1', Krzysztof Stasiewicz, 23 Mar 2022
  • RC3: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Anonymous Referee #3, 19 Apr 2022
    • AC6: 'Reply on RC3', Krzysztof Stasiewicz, 22 Apr 2022
  • EC2: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Nick Sergis, 05 May 2022

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Anonymous Referee #1, 20 Feb 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC1', Krzysztof Stasiewicz, 03 Mar 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Anonymous Referee #2, 28 Feb 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC2', Krzysztof Stasiewicz, 03 Mar 2022
      • AC3: 'Reply on AC1', Krzysztof Stasiewicz, 06 Mar 2022
  • AC4: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Krzysztof Stasiewicz, 16 Mar 2022
  • EC1: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Nick Sergis, 16 Mar 2022
  • CC1: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Wieslaw M. Macek, 22 Mar 2022
    • AC5: 'Reply on CC1', Krzysztof Stasiewicz, 23 Mar 2022
  • RC3: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Anonymous Referee #3, 19 Apr 2022
    • AC6: 'Reply on RC3', Krzysztof Stasiewicz, 22 Apr 2022
  • EC2: 'Comment on angeo-2022-2', Nick Sergis, 05 May 2022

Krzysztof Stasiewicz and Zbigniew Kłos

Krzysztof Stasiewicz and Zbigniew Kłos

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Short summary
The acceleration, or energisation, of particles is a common and fundamental process throughout the universe. This study presents new observations of the acceleration of protons by waves at the bow shock upstream of the Earth, where the solar wind first encounters Earth’s magnetic field. The results are important because they provide insight into potential processes that can create high-energy particles both near the Earth and at other astrophysical systems.