Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2022-1
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2022-1
 
11 Jan 2022
11 Jan 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal ANGEO.

Sounding of sporadic E layers from CSES radio occultation and comparing with ionosonde measurements

Chengkun Gan1, Jiayu Hu2, Xiaomin Luo3, Chao Xiong4,5, and Shengfeng Gu1 Chengkun Gan et al.
  • 1GNSS Research Center, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
  • 2School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
  • 3School of Geography and Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Wuhan 430074, China
  • 4Department of Space Physics, School of Electronic Information, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
  • 5Hubei Luojia Laboratory, Wuhan 430079, China

Abstract. GNSS radio occultation (RO) plays an important role in ionospheric electron density inversion and sounding of sporadic E layers. As the China's first electromagnetic satellite, China Seismo Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) has collected the RO data from both GPS and BDS-2 satellites since March 2018. In this study, we extracted the carrier to noise density ratio (CNR) data of CSES and calculated the standard deviation of normalized CNR. A new criterion is developed to determine the Es events, that is when the mean value of the absolute value of the difference between the normalized CNR is greater than 3 times of the standard deviation. The statistics show that sporadic E layers have strong seasonal variations with highest occurrence rates in summer season at middle latitudes. It is also found that the occurrence height of Es is mainly located at 90–110 km, and the period of local time 15:00–18:00 is the high incidence period of Es. In addition, the geometric altitudes of a sporadic E layer detected in CSES radio occultation profiles and the virtual heights of a sporadic E layer obtained by the Wuhan Zuo Ling Tai (ZLT) ionosonde show four different space-time matching criterions. Our results reveal that there is a good agreement between both parameters which is reflected in the significant correlation.

Chengkun Gan et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on angeo-2022-1', Anonymous Referee #1, 08 Feb 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Shengfeng Gu, 26 Feb 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on angeo-2022-1', Anonymous Referee #2, 11 Feb 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Shengfeng Gu, 26 Feb 2022

Chengkun Gan et al.

Chengkun Gan et al.

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Short summary
A new criterion is developed to determine Es, that is when the mean value of the absolute value of the difference between the normalized CNR is greater than 3 times of the standard deviation. The statistics show that Es have strong seasonal variations with highest occurrence rates in summer season at middle latitudes, mainly locating at 90–110 km, at 15:00–18:00 LT. The comparison of Es altitudes from RO profiles with ionosonde revealed a large correspondence between both measurement techniques.