Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2021-47
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2021-47

  04 Aug 2021

04 Aug 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ANGEO.

Quantifying the nonlinear dependence of energetic electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts with radial diffusion drivers

Adnane Osmane1, Mikko Savola1, Emilia Kilpua1, Hannu Koskinen1, Joseph E. Borovsky2, and Milla Kalliokoski1 Adnane Osmane et al.
  • 1Departmenf of Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland
  • 2Space Science Institute, Colorado, USA

Abstract. In this study, we use mutual information to characterise statistical dependencies of seed and relativistic electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts on ultra low frequency (ULF) wave power measured on the ground and at geostationary orbit . The benefit of mutual information, in comparison to measures such as the Pearson correlation, lies in the capacity to distinguish nonlinear dependencies from linear ones. After reviewing the property of mutual information and its relationship with the Pearson correlation for Gaussian bivariates of arbitrary correlation, we present a methodology to quantify and distinguish linear and nonlinear statistical dependencies that can be generalised to a wide range of solar wind drivers and magnetospheric responses. We present an application of the methodology by revisiting the case events studied by Rostoker et al. (1998). Our results corroborate the conclusions of Rostoker et al. (1998) that ULF wave power and relativistic electron fluxes are statistically dependent upon one another. However, we find that observed enhancements in relativistic electron fluxes correlate modestly, both linearly and nonlinearly, with the ULF power spectrum when compared with values found in previous studies (Simms et al., 2014), and with values found between seed electrons and ULF wave power for the same case events. Our results are indicative of the importance in incorporating data analysis tools that can quantify and distinguish between linear and nonlinear interdependencies of various solar wind drivers.

Adnane Osmane et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on angeo-2021-47', Anonymous Referee #1, 28 Aug 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on angeo-2021-47', Anonymous Referee #1, 28 Aug 2021
  • RC3: 'Comment on angeo-2021-47', Anonymous Referee #2, 04 Sep 2021

Adnane Osmane et al.

Adnane Osmane et al.

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Short summary
It has long been known that particles get accelerated close to the speed of light in the near Earth's space environment. Research in the last decades have also clarified what processes and waves are responsible for the acceleration of particles. However, it is difficult to quantify the scale of the impact of various processes competing with one another. In this study we present a methodology to quantify the impact waves can have on energetic particles.